Should young investors really hold riskier portfolios?
There is a common financial thumb rule when it comes to an investor’s age and the risk level of his portfolio. Most financial planners recommend a higher level of portfolio risk to younger investor and a lower level of portfolio risk to older investors.
This thumb rule is rooted in what seems to be common sense financial logic. A younger investor has more time left to save thus allowing his portfolio to adjust and compensate for possible loss due to the high risk level taken. And older investor should, by the same logic, avoid portfolio risk and concentrate his investment efforts on preserving his hard earned and saved capital.
Academic research is not supportive
Surprisingly enough this practical thumb rule has little in the way of academic support. I’ve been trying to find an academic justification for this professional habit and I’ve failed. Furthermore, I’ve found articles dating as early as 1970’s doubting this very logic application of finance.
Noble winning economist Paul Samuelson published an article on the subject in 1963 which is still referred to by almost any article ever since. The article was titled “Risk and Uncertainty: A Fallacy of Large Numbers”. In this article Samuelson demonstrated how having multiple draws (much like multiple years of saving) has nothing to do with risk preference.
This is understood more intuitively by thinking of the slim chance of a 20 year financial drought which might happen during all of your early years of investing in stocks.
Surprising results of a new published research
“Adding insult to injury” a relatively new research by Harold J. Schleef and Robert M. Eisinger titled “hitting or missing the retirement target: comparing contribution and asset allocation schemes of simulated portfolios” found some surprising results.
The researches simulated hypothetical portfolios for different investors and investment periods for ages 35-65. The researchers studied two strategies:
1.Strategy A – Portfolio risk declines with age – the share of stocks is reduced from 78% at age 35 to 40% at age 65.
2. Strategy B – Portfolio risk increases with age – the share of stocks is increased from 40% at age 35 to 78% at age 65.
In both strategies the methodology included an annual contribution of $11,000.
Results were indeed surprising. Strategy B where risk was not reduced with age but was actually increased with age 45% of the portfolios reached a net worth of $1,000,000 or more. Strategy A managed far worse with 29% of the portfolios reaching a net worth of $1,000,000 or more.
These results are a great way of demonstrating what Samuelson understood back at 1963. Variability is everything. Long term investments are not risk free. If they were risk free there’d be no premium on investing in stocks for the long term.
A third option that was not simulated was keeping a fixed share of stock in the portfolio for the term of investment. I assure you, a research can be put together to prove this strategy as the better one under specific conditions.
The bottom line, be reasonable. There is no guarantee in long term stock investments and they are just as risky. Don’t miss out on stock returns but don’t be blinded by them either.academic justification, older investors, retirement target, risk preference, thumb rule